The retina consists of light-sensitive tissue that plays an essential role in your ability to see. Our eyes are equivalent to cameras in that they have a lens in front and a lens (our retina) behind. There are 4 important structures that together are responsible for a good quality and quantity of vision, and the retina is one of them. The retina is situated approximately 2 centimeters behind the cornea. The light entering the eye reaches the retina and is further relayed via the optic nerve to the brain. Thus, severe vision loss can occur in diseases affecting the vitreous, retina and optic nerve. The modern methods of diagnosis and treatment has made it possible to manage these disorders satisfactorily.
World through the eyes of patients with Macular Degeneration
Macular Degeneration leads to central vision loss. Central vision is what your eyes focus on when you look straight ahead. Macular degeneration affects only central vision because it results from damage to the central part of the retina (called the macula). The condition does not affect side vision.
A retinal detachment is a medical emergency. Anyone experiencing the symptoms below should see an eye care professional immediately.
Both these techniques can be done as out-patient procedures, and do not involve any incision, suturing etc .i.e. they are treated from outside the eye, no admission required for the same.
Large retinal detachments are treated with surgery – Scleral Buckle or Vitrectomy. For Scleral Buckle, a tiny synthetic band is attached to the outside of the eyeball to gently push the wall of the eye against the detached retina. During vitrectomy, the vitreous (a gel-like substance that fills the centre of the eye) is replaced by silicon oil or gas.
With modern therapy, over 90% of retinal detachment can be successfully treated, although sometimes a second treatment is needed. However, the visual outcome is not always predictable. Visual results are best if the retinal detachment is repaired before the macula (the centre region of retina responsible for fine, detailed vision gets involved). After surgery, normal activities can be resumed. If necessary, you will be advised by your doctor to maintain certain positions – posturing- after the surgery.
Vein occlusion nearly always happens in one eye. The symptoms are blurry vision that gets worse in a few hours or days leading to sudden loss of vision
There’s no cure for retinal vein occlusion. Your doctor can’t unblock the retinal veins. What they can do is treat any complications and protect your vision.
They may recommend:
Macular hole is when a tear or opening forms in your macula. As the hole forms, things in your central vision will look blurry, wavy or distorted. As the hole grows, a dark or blind spot appears in your central vision. A macular hole does not affect your peripheral (side) vision. Age is the most common cause of macular hole. As you get older, the vitreous begins to shrink and pull away from the retina. Usually the vitreous pulls away with no problems. But sometimes the vitreous can stick to the retina. This causes the macula to stretch and a hole to form. Sometimes a macular hole can form when the macula swells from other eye disease or by an eye injury.
Macular hole is diagnosed by taking pictures of your eye using optical coherence tomography (OCT). With OCT, a machine scans the back of your eye. This provides very detailed pictures of the retina and macula. Your ophthalmologist studies these pictures to check for problems.